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09 October, 2009

Climate change in the media

Does the current discourse regarding climate change enable effective action?

What significantly influences this discourse, and how can we enable change?

INTRODUCTION

The focus of this essay is public discourse about the issue of climate change - and whether this discourse enables or constrains effective public action to prevent its potentially catastrophic effects.

This question includes such issues as what is meant by discourse, the power relations behind and within discourse, and the concept of empowerment in and through discourse.

The nature of media discourse is of central importance, as the dominant form of public discourse, and is therefore the focus of this research – both the media portrayals of climate change related issues, and the public’s perception of these issues are surveyed. The results of this research strongly indicate the need for media reform and suggest this area as an essential target for climate change organisations, advocates, activists and educators.

Significant influences on the media portrayal of climate change, and environmental issues in general, include media structure and practices – particularly market forces and the reliance on advertising revenue. These are overarching influences which frequently surfaced in this research - but the main subject of inquiry is the encoding (by media), decoding (by audiences) and framing (by media and audiences) of climate change. The research question implicitly asserts that the nature of these discursive practices shapes and constructs the choice of frameworks within which discourse can take place, and therefore also the choice to act, or the form of action taken, in responding to the issues as presented.

Enabling change in the broadest sense of influencing whole societies, their cultures, lifestyles and paradigms, is a long-term project, and would require raising awareness, motivating and enabling action, and shaping new values and priorities. This would involve insights from the social sciences (e.g. psychology and sociology), social change theories, religious and spiritual leaders – and is beyond the scope of this essay.

Instead, with reference specifically to the media, ‘enabling change’ requires what may be termed ‘enabling communication’ – presenting climate change in a manner that enables individuals to negotiate with the message, and decide on the options portrayed; as well as enabling public dialogue to build collective visions and goals (what is considered ‘effective action’ would be defined, debated, implemented and reviewed in and through this process). Communication of this nature would incorporate some of the insights of peace journalism, conflict resolution, and the social sciences – and some of these are briefly touched on in assessing the nature of the current discourse.

It is important to remember that the effectiveness of the media is not exclusively dependent on media itself, but is an ‘emergent property’ of the interaction of all components of the system. Climate change discourse is also shaped by the interplay of scientific, economic and policy-making discourses, which have resulted in an ongoing debate about sustainability, and includes a wide range of (sometimes passionately conflicting) views. These cannot be overlooked in understanding the challenge of climate change discourse in its full context – but are not dealt with in this essay.

This small contribution to the discourse on peace and the environment aims to highlight the need for more holistic communication approaches, in order to enable effective action on climate change. This would simultaneously contribute towards the aims of ‘peace with justice’, as including our relationship with each other and our environment; and encourage ‘environmental justice’ – the respectful use, access and enjoyment of the natural environment, shared by all living beings.


CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGE DISCOURSE IN THE MEDIA

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research in the following section was designed to analyse Australian newspaper and television news, and observe any correlations between the media’s representation of the issue of climate change, and the public’s response to these messages – as provided via an online survey. This research aimed to uncover what readings Australians are making of the texts, and how this meaning-making is affecting their behaviour or actions with regard to climate change.

The methods of analysis used in this research were more towards the qualitative end of -the spectrum than the quantitative, in keeping with peace studies approaches which emphasise the need for more holistic approaches and frameworks of analysis. Since the research question is concerned with social rather than scientific processes and phenomena, an interpretative approach is unavoidable, even essential.

Literature review of existing scientific, political, academic and communication/media debates applicable to the climate change issue; evaluating the theoretical concepts applicable to the research question.
Critical discourse analysis (more than simple content analysis) of media texts – analysing key points, general trends, recurring or dominant themes (e.g. environment vs. economy/jobs, or action by Australia vs. action by developing countries) and prevailing moods (e.g. negativity and fear vs. hope and empowerment.

This was a qualitative analysis of the latent message, the communicator’s intentions and the intended interpretations by recipients. This approach included, but was not limited to, communication concepts developed by Stuart Hall, such as encoding, decoding and framing, with texts containing a ‘built-in dominant reading’(Hall, 1981); and power theories such as Norman Fairclough’s reference to power ‘in and behind discourse’(Fairclough, 1989, p.74).

The sampling method used for this media survey could be classified as ‘accidental’ – a collection of print media articles and television programs relating to climate change which the researcher encountered during the last year, at random intervals. It is suggested that the sampling method approaches that of an average person living their daily life, and being exposed to media at various times in a manner referred to as “the distracted gaze” of postmodern society by Grossberg (Grossberg, 1988).

Also, as a counter-balance, or “control group” selection, a thorough search was carried out on the articles relating to “climate change” in all the Australian newspapers - The Age, The Canberra times, The Telegraph, The Australian and many others, including regional newspapers - for the last month of the one year period. Of these, the top 100, or ‘most relevant’ were picked (by the online filter), and analysed in the same manner.

In addition, two weeks of television news from the five main channels in Australia were analysed – timed to coincide with the first two weeks of the online survey being carried out as described below.

Online survey of general public feelings and thoughts about climate change and possible action. This was a non-probability, ‘convenience’ or ‘accidental’ sample, and was intended as exploratory research only, to indicate potential future questions and research possibilities, rather than proving conclusively what the Australian public think or feel about climate change.

Comparative analysis of the similarities or differences between the findings of this research and the findings of other similar surveys was undertaken – for example the BBC World climate change poll taken in 2007 (BBC News, 25 September, 2007), and a report by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) regarding ‘pro-environmental’ behaviours (DEFRA, January 2008).


Peace Journalism insights were used throughout this research, in order to highlight potential approaches to ‘open’ the texts to a wider range of perspectives and interpretations, and thereby inspire and enable action on the climate change issue.


NEWSPAPER ANALYSIS

A. Dominant Themes/ Prevailing Moods:

1. Importance - positioning and prominence
The issue of climate change, and environmental sustainability in general, is frequently sidelined in favour of extensive economic coverage, with even sport coverage being more prominent. Environmental issues are usually covered as an “interest” feature, and frequently only discussed in the “opinion” sections of newspapers. In contrast, economic issues are always most prominent, and discussions or related articles stretch across many pages, with additional “Business” or “Finance” sections in most newspapers.

2. Confounded with statistics and complexity – yet missing (masking?) the point
Many of the climate change articles that made it to the front pages were framed as economic issues – anchored around numbers, statistics, percentages and billions of dollars to be spent or given as rebates and compensation by the government. This is a strong indicator of the interpretation of environmental issues from within the prevailing economic paradigm and discourse.

Furthermore, these statistics, figures, and details do not help to illustrate the issues, but rather add to the complexity, and are alienating and confusing to ordinary readers – a ‘layperson’ can’t verify or reject scientific and economic data easily. One is expected to simply ‘trust the experts’ – and deciding which group is ‘winning’ the argument becomes like watching a game of tennis, or a percentage ‘tug-of-war’ - with headlines like “Playing the percentages” (Sydney Morning Herald, 13-14 Dec., 2008, pp.21-22).

The over use of statistics and figures also gives the appearance of certainty and measurability, where there often isn’t any. Focusing on certain details (e.g. what percentage of GHG reductions the government will finally commit to) at the expense of the bigger picture (what policies and strategies are being put in place to make this journey) not only detracts from the real issues and impacts, but may also mask the possibility that not enough is actually being done. This creates a barrage of ‘noise’ from officialdom, which drowns out any dissenting voices, alternative approaches or useful information.

3. The bigger picture, and action vs. fatalism
One article referred to a curious neglect on the part of many journalists – wondering why a documentary about the tornadoes in the US in 2008, being the worst on record, made no mention of possible links to climate change in its coverage (Sydney Morning Herald, 13 Apr., 2009, p.12). This is a frequent omission from news coverage, and may stem from more than the journalistic norms of focusing on ‘event over process’ – it is perhaps evidence of a reluctance to make any controversial assertions of this nature, and possibly even a deeper, economically-driven agenda (Beder, 1997) embedded within the news organisations themselves. The bigger picture (in this case sustainability), or context, is completely lacking from much of the discourse – most glaringly in the case of articles discussing the economic effects of environmental legislation on industries or communities.

One such ongoing debate is the controversial water allocations in the Murray-Darling basin – where one is left with the impression of a government willfully depriving farmers of their much-needed irrigation water (Sydney Morning Herald, 11-12 Oct., 2008, p.5; Sydney Morning Herald, 9 Mar., 2009, pp.1, 4-5; ABC Premium News, 16 Apr.2009). Interviews with angry rice farmers, and stories of the numbers of people that are selling and moving away, leave the reader with no framework for making sense of the situation, and the strong emotions raised. No indication is given of the complexity of the situation, or possible climate change links.

The ongoing and record-breaking drought, the mismanagement of the Murray-Darling water system thus far – these can be guessed at by the more astute readers, but where are the discussions about the long-term viability of farming in regions where a heavy reliance on irrigation (and man’s na├»ve belief that nature can be dominated), is the only reason for their existence in these areas? Only one article, an interview with a local, third generation farmer, briefly noted the foolishness of the government encouraging more farmers in certain regions - where water allocations were already problematic (Sydney Morning Herald, 9 Mar., 2009, p.5).

B. Criteria of analysis:

1. Clarity and accuracy
As discussed previously, much of the discourse is focused rather narrowly on numbers, statistics and financial interpretations – the cost of acting, rather than the natural and human implications, and the cost of not acting. Most articles do not contain glaring inaccuracies, but more subtle distortions and omissions. The inaccurate picture that emerges (according to the assertion of this essay) is more a result of the framing and the very nature of the discursive regimes themselves (scientific, political and economic), and the interplay between them – than any direct or obvious misinformation.

However, there are examples of the (mis) use of statistics and figures, without context – such as the barrage of statistics used by more than one climate sceptic, to give weight to arguments that temperatures over the last decade have actually fallen, not risen as claimed (The Australian, 20 Jan., 2009 p.10; Sydney Morning Herald 3-4 May, 2008, p.37). However, this is a misleading emphasis on only one aspect of climate change – the erroneous assumption that it simply equals rising temperatures overlooks the complexities involved, such as an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, and acidification of the oceans - to name but a few. An example of a more balanced approach is an article which notes that the temperature rise in Australia may be less extreme than predicted, but it would still result in very serious consequences for human health, and animals (Sydney Morning Herald, 9 Apr., 2009, p.5).

2. Framing
2.1 A zero-sum game: Environment vs. Economy
When climate change did make it to the front page, it was usually with headlines focusing on the potentially negative effects of political policies, and again framed in purely economic terms – e.g. “Get used to being greener, poorer” (Sydney Morning Herald, 5-6 Apr., 2008, p.1); and “Senator Wong warns of economic shake-up” (Sydney Morning Herald, 17 Mar., 2008, p.1,5). The false “choice between the economy and the environment” (Daily Telegraph, 16 Apr., 2009) is prevalent throughout much that is written about sustainability and climate change – whereas clearly, without a healthy environment there could be no life, let alone any economic activity.

The interaction between the economic, social and environmental spheres has long been recognised as inseparable in sustainability discourse, and has recently entered business language as ‘the triple bottom line’ (Yencken & Wilkinson, 2000, p.325), or even the four pillars of sustainability’ – including cultural sustainability. These all need to be balanced and considered concurrently to achieve sustainability (Yencken & Wilkinson, 2000, pp.9-11). Therefore discussing these issues more holistically would not be controversial, or outside of the recognised discourse on the subject.

2.2 The “us and them” attitude
International climate change talks are portrayed as a battle between “us” and “them” to avoid acting first, or sacrificing too much, if no one else is going to be subjected to the same targets. This could be seen as a delaying tactic, and equally as a form of denial of responsibility. Although there was some coverage of the findings of a recent Department of Defence report that Australians see “climate change, not China”, as Australia’s “biggest security challenge” (AAP General News, 15 Apr., 2009; ABC News, 15 Apr., 2009; The Australian, 16 Apr., 2009, p.2), the impacts of climate change were portrayed solely in terms of the security threat that could be posed by resource scarcity in neighbouring countries, and the resulting “climate refugees” (The Age, 9 Apr., 2009, p.10). This was framed in apocalyptic terms, with headlines like - “Defence warns of climate conflict” (Sydney Morning Herald, 7 Jan., 2009, p.1), again promoting an “us and them” attitude. This simultaneously adds yet another fear to the list of vague catastrophes that may befall us, and ensures support for the militaristic antidote implied (i.e. we must continue to invest heavily in the Defence Force).

3. Omissions
3.1 Vested interests
In an article about the premier and the power industry, “Premier’s power play” (Sydney Morning Herald, 19-20 Apr., 2008, p.25) there is no mention of the relevance of climate change to this industry and the government’s policies regarding energy. An article with the heading “state owns biggest polluters” (Sydney Morning Herald, 1 Apr., 2009, p.3) is conspicuously alone in discussing the ‘elephant in the room’ – the issue that is obvious to all, but never mentioned. Many articles also note the strength of the coal lobby, amongst others, but this is usually presented in the light of the jobs that they provide to communities (Sydney Morning Herald, 9 Mar., 2009, p.4; Daily Telegraph, 16 Apr., 2009) – entwining the corporate and community interests in a way that is guaranteed to evoke popular support for whatever they demand. Provocative phrases like “climate plan hits mines” and “will jobs stay or go?” (Daily Telegraph, 16 Apr., 2009) seem designed to induce panic in readers. This appears to correspond with theories of media as ‘ideological apparatus’ (Althusser, 1971 in Bennett, 1982, p.31); and integral in maintaining ‘hegemony’, by ensuring that elite interests are seen to be entwined with those of the masses.

The economist and former government advisor, Prof. Garnaut is one of the few who ‘debunked’ the excessive permits to be given to the worst polluters by the government, and pointed out that vested interests and their massive lobbying efforts have unduly influenced the Emissions Trading System (ETS) behind the scenes (Sydney Morning Herald, 19-21 Dec., 2008, p.25). Other articles that highlighted this issue included headlines like “Lower burden for the nation’s worst polluters” (Sydney Morning Herald, 16 Dec., 2008, p.2); or “industry gets a cushioned start to the ETS” (Sydney Morning Herald, 16 Dec., 2008, p.5); or “Rudd digs deep for [coal] sector” (Sydney Morning Herald, 16 Dec., 2008, p.5). Again there is a note of fatalism, however – as in the article with the heading: “Titans of industry sinking us” (The Mercury, 11 Apr., 2009, p.39). This fatalistic tone may be implicated in the lack of empowerment observed in the survey responses.

Of further cause for concern is the co-opting of the environmental message within a corporate public relations agenda – as in the front page special for Earth Hour, which focuses on two electricians, suddenly recast as heroes, who will be “flicking the switch” on the harbour bridge that night (Sydney Morning Herald, 29-30 Mar., 2009, p.1). Using ordinary people as the focal point of a story in order to increase the readers’ identification with the topic is not unusual or sinister, but in this case the choice of electricians, specifically from EnergyAustralia, could be indicative of an underlying agenda.

In this manner, one of the biggest polluters in Australia - in NSW, 90 percent of electricity is supplied by coal fired power stations, which account for approximately 36.6 percent of all NSW GHG emissions and 10.3 percent of total Australian GHG emissions (DPI NSW, 2009) - is effortlessly and iconically associated with an earth friendly initiative. This could be seen as a calculated reversal of roles – an exercise in positive association which their public relations team is no doubt proud of, even if they had no hand in it - which is hard to imagine. As “the most powerful message is a simple message attached to an image” (Castells, 2007, p.242) - the total lack of contextual explanations about climate change or the purpose of Earth hour itself, result in this article actually obscuring the facts and detracting from the real issues.

3.2 Ethics
Are ethics a taboo concept in post-modern society, or at least for those who presuppose Machiavellian motivations are the modus operandi of the political and economic sectors? Only a handful of articles argued for taking the moral high ground regarding action on climate change, with one in particular pointing out that “Australia must show moral leadership”, as it emits far higher levels of GHG than developing countries, for example 99 times more than Bangladesh (Sydney Morning Herald, 10-11 Jan., 2009, p.25). A couple of articles made the case that Bangladeshi people are in fact already suffering the effects of climate change – with increased floods and cyclones already displacing people and creating isolated communities (Sydney Morning Herald, 11-12 Oct., 2008, p.29); and it risks becoming “an environmental Palestine” (Sydney Morning Herald, 10-11 Jan., 2009, p.25).

Yet Australian targets for GHG emissions reduction, another article points out, are lower than those of developing countries (Sydney Morning Herald, 15 Apr., 2009, p.1). This front page article with the heading “Scientists attack Rudd’s plan”, noted that these targets “will not achieve climate protection” (Sydney Morning Herald, 15 Apr., 2009, p.1). However, no ethical discussion ensues – perhaps the restraints of journalistic ‘professionalism’ require detachment, but if the result of “objectivity” is ethical bankruptcy, then it is time to re-evaluate the goals of journalism. Peace journalism is one approach which aims to do this - by opening up the text to more viewpoints and interpretations, and in so doing create a fuller picture to enable readers to make their own ‘negotiated’ reading of the issues (Lynch & McGoldrick, 2005, p.182; Lynch, 2006, p.4).

If the media are to serve us in the fuller sense – beyond information to public discussions of issues, enabling society to debate and decide on shared goals - then we cannot omit from the discussions the importance of regard for others, in other places and in the future; or the negative consequences of a society built on greed and self-indulgence rather than sharing and self-restraint.

3.3 Consumerism and limits to growth
Consumerism is largely promoted as part of the solution – through an array of products advertising ‘eco’ attributes, and through the remaking of brands by what many now refer to as the ‘greenwashing’ industry. One of the main reasons one seldom encounters an article discussing the much-needed changes in consumption levels and patterns, fundamental cultural attitudes and personal lifestyles is that advertising revenue is the lifeblood of the media industry. “While the media informs the public about climate change one minute, in the next it is advertising products or activities that increase greenhouse gas emissions” (Shanahan, 2007). Not only does advertising revenue influence news content, but media discourse is the primary vehicle for promoting the culture of consumerism at unsustainable levels which could otherwise be examined critically.

So it was refreshing to read an opinion piece about the ethics of air travel – noting that this is the biggest culprit in the GHG emissions of individuals (Sydney Morning Herald, 9-10 Aug., 2008, p.29). Discussions of this nature are also unpopular as they touch on inconvenient lifestyle changes and sacrifices that must ensue if one takes the full implications of climate change seriously. Part of the problem, however, is that instead of potentially inspiring, alternative, non-consumerist lifestyles, consumerism is still celebrated, and actively encouraged, by the media and government alike (as in the recent campaigns by the Federal government to encourage irresponsible consumerism to “stimulate the economy”).

4. Discursive regimes
4.1 Expert/ elite discourse
The disempowering effects of the overwhelmingly expert or elite nature of much of climate change discourse is especially evident in articles mentioning the upcoming Copenhagen talks (The Australian, 16 Apr., 2009, p.5). One is left with the impression of ‘experts’ at a ‘chin-wagging session’ far away, who will decide for us all. This is particularly discouraging when there are no tangible outcomes, with the feedback in the news usually along the same old story line: denial, delays and inaction - e.g. “Climate talks fizzle out” (The Age, 10 Apr., 2009, p.8).
There is also an observable ‘disconnect’ between the scientific concerns and the government policies supposedly aiming to address these - e.g. “Current targets won’t protect planet” (The Age, 13 Apr., 2009, p.4). 


The uneasy meeting of science and politics causes a ‘catch-22’ situation where politicians feel it is outside of the scope of their expertise to make judgments on the state of scientific knowledge; and many scientists are loathe to make value judgements, further regarding any political comment as damaging their scientific credibility (Dessler & Parson, 2006, pp.36-37,41). This could be viewed as an opportunity for media – as a ‘bridge’ between the science and the politics of climate change – in presenting the issues to the public.

Rare examples of a measured discussion of the divergence between science and politics, show how the government’s failure to invest in renewable technologies, and its focus on carbon capture and storage which will not be a viable option for decades, ignores much of the science which warns that 2030 will be too late (The Age, 13 Apr., 2009, p.4; Sydney Morning Herald, 16 Apr. 2009, p.4).

From the readers’ perspective, scientific findings reported on in the media, for example the effect that increasing acidification of the oceans is having on the ability of oysters and other crustaceans to form shells (Sydney Morning Herald, 4-5 Oct., 2008, p.3; Sydney Morning Herald, 9 Mar., 2009, p.4); or the breaking up of the Wilkins Shelf in Antarctica recently (The Mercury, 13 Apr., 2009, p.15), are conveyed with a dry and matter-of-fact air and leave little room for speculations about possible remedial action. Consequently a valuable opportunity to make the case for action or to empower readers with alternatives or strategies for change, is lost – simply due to the journalists unquestioningly adopting the tenets of scientific discourse.

Instead, using a “peace journalism” approach would involve contextualising findings, opening up the text to discuss the implications and possibilities for change, and perhaps interviewing policy-makers in an effort to highlight possible actions and address accountability. These strategies would be viewed as objectionable in the current paradigm, however - under the claims of ‘objectivity’ as currently practiced in the journalism profession. Yet this ‘restricted frame of reference’ – a narrow range of sources and opinions - allows only a limited set of interpretations and reactions (Lynch & McGoldrick, 2005, p.182).

4.2 Anti-discourse
There is a distinct lack of counter-analysis on the part of many climate change sceptics in the ranks of the media – referred to here as anti-discourse because sceptics currently appear to be defined by what they are against, rather than for. The dictionary definition of a ‘sceptic’ as “one who instinctively or habitually doubts, questions, or disagrees with assertions or generally accepted conclusions”, is enlightening (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2009). There is little real engagement in debating the issue – instead sceptics counter by not dealing with the issue at all. Strong arguments can be made for this being merely another form psychological denial, and is also possibly linked to the previous commentary under section 3.3: ‘Consumerism and limits to growth’.

Accusations of ‘pessimism’ are pervasive, but may simply be a dismissive response to avoid dealing with the implications of the weighty and ever-increasing scientific evidence. Genuine causes for concern by environmentalists attempting to raise the profile of this issue in public discourse and policy-making circles are dismissed as being ‘too emotional’. However, in the absence of complete conviction regarding the science of climate change, even a risk-aversion approach on the part of sceptics would be more ‘rational’ than automatic denial - which could equally be argued to be based on an emotional, rather than ‘rational’ response.

Most of the articles found that expressed sceptical views on climate change, avoided actually considering the issue – preferring instead to use various mocking phrases, like “planet doomsayers need cold shower” (Sydney Morning Herald, 18-19 Apr., 2009, p.9). Could this be a classic case of one losing an argument resorting to calling the opponent names? Others make unfounded generalisations like “climate change has not killed anyone yet” and “there is not enough evidence” (ABC, 15 Apr., 2009). This could easily be countered with decades of research and observations.

On the other hand, there were notable exceptions – an article covering the NASA Scientist’s view that climate change modelling is wrong (The Herald, 14 Apr., 2009, p.9); a brief outline of a study which found that “fossil fuels fail to explain atmospheric carbon dioxide levels” (Australian Environmental Foundation, 14 Apr., 2009); and others which discussed the objection by a geologist from Adelaide that the sun’s movements and changes are the main influence in climate change (The Australian, 14 Apr., 2009, p.11; The Advertiser, 13 Apr., 2009, p.10)


These articles used a lot of complex scientific arguments as always, making it difficult to engage meaningfully with the texts. This restraint of scientific discourse could perhaps be offset by diligent journalists, who are able to carefully contextualise such conclusions, for example by juxtaposing this with other, peer-reviewed findings. In the absence of this careful contextualisation, the result is a ‘false balance’ (Lynch, 2007, p.17; Shanahan, 2007, p.1) – a handful of sceptical voices are given equal weighting to the overwhelming majority scientific consensus on climate change – in order to appear ‘objective’.

4.3 Discourse of Hope - a green, attractive future
4.3.1 Alternatives
Environmental scientist Tim Flannery concluded recently that the world is too far down the coal path to simply dump it, and we may need to focus on ‘clean coal’ technology - yet this technology will not be ready for use until around 2030 (Sydney Morning Herald, 20-21 Sept., 2008, p.30). In the same essay he bemoaned the lack of vision and leadership that is apparent in government and business decision-making and has resulted in this lack of feasible alternatives (Sydney Morning Herald, 20-21 Sept., 2008, p.30). Another article reiterated the apparent lack of leadership with the heading, “PM baulks at crossroads of history” (Sydney Morning Herald, 16 Dec., 2008, p.5).

Others discussed how a ‘soft’ ETS would crush the “green revolution” and its potential for creating jobs (Sydney Morning Herald, 16 Dec., 2008, p.5); and in a review requested by Rudd, a member of the government slammed the plan to double coal exports from Newcastle, concluding that “there is no future for coal or ‘clean coal’ technology” (Sydney Morning Herald, 1 Apr., 2009, p.3).

Hopeful and inspiring articles included the stories about the thriving new wind farm installation industry, which is providing many jobs for electricians and other tradesmen (Sydney Morning Herald, 22 Oct., 2008, p.14); a solar installation in QLD already providing energy to sixty homes (Sydney Morning Herald, 15 Dec., 2008, p. 2); a renewable energy park in a regional school, and its inspiring effect on the children (Sydney Morning Herald, 22 Oct., 2008, p.14); and another school with an organic garden, which is resulting in a connection with the environment, and healthier eating habits for many of the children (Sydney Morning Herald, 19 Mar., 2008, p.19).

These were articles filled with hope, and a simultaneous sense of empowerment flowing through them. However these were rare examples, and usually placed well towards the back of newspapers.

4.3.2 Actions
Any actions taken or encouraged appear to be aimed at adjustment and mitigation in the face of the inevitable – such as articles about the need for fire imaging to determine increased risks due to climate change (ABC Premium News, 9 Apr., 2009); stories about monitoring systems being required at the Great Barrier reef, which is already suffering the effects of climate change (Townsville Bulletin, 11 Apr., 2009, p.73; The Cairns Post, 9 Apr., 2009, p.50); and a story about moving sea turtles’ eggs to cooler areas, as climate change is already affecting their breeding sites (Townsville Bulletin, 11 Apr., 2009, p.72).

So it was like a breath of fresh air to read “20 ideas to save the planet” (Sydney Morning Herald, 29 Jun., 2008, pp.18-22) - a practical, accessible list of everyday ways to start making environmentally friendly choices and adjustments. There were a couple of other articles that gave practical information aimed at the general public, which could be translated into real choices and actions to prevent climate change. These included the discussion of the environmental impact of large homes, with a list of ideas for efficiency for prospective home builders or buyers (The Herald, 15 Apr., 2009, p.20); and the green display home which would give people ideas to enable them to “live in a green house” (The Illawarra Mercury, 11 Apr., 2009, p.3).

Residential buildings and road transport are the biggest areas of environmental impact ordinary people have control over today, and empowering people would require this sort of information being given more prominence and coverage, alongside the frequent discussions about soaring energy bills - e.g. “chasing affordable power bills” (Sunday Star-Times, 12 Apr., 2009), and the price of petrol. 


The lack of this type of narrative could be seen to originate in the media’s commercial imperatives and news values, which have already been noted. If readers are to feel empowered and able to act in their everyday lives, despite the discouraging messages of delays and inaction at the elite level - e.g. “Climate talks fizzle out” (The Age, 10 Apr., 2009, p.8), they need more articles covering alternatives and actions - and inspiring hope.

The next stage in this research was to analyse the treatment of climate change related stories on the evening news on television – as this is accessed by many people on a daily basis, and its highly visual nature makes it a powerful medium. It also has great potential to educate and motivate audiences, due to its immediacy and entertainment value – which raises the question of whether this potential is being well utilised?


Television NEWS analysis
TOTALS
No. stories referring to climate change
No. stories appearing in first 10 min. of news
Total min. of climate change related coverage
Channel 7 @6pm
5
2
8
Channel 9 @ 6pm
3
1
5
Channel 10 @5pm
5
2
7
ABC @ 7pm
5
3
10
SBS @ 6.30pm
12
4
21








Television analysis – figures
(Friday 27 March 2009 to Thursday 9 April 2009 – two week period)
Note: SBS news is 1 hour, others only 30 min


A. Dominant Themes/ Prevailing Moods:

1. Importance - positioning and prominence
As can be seen from the table above, climate change was not a prominent or frequently covered issue. SBS had the highest number (but they also have a longer news program), yet still these were towards the end of the bulletin, rather than in the first ten minutes. The economic crisis was in every news bulletin – with early, lengthy coverage - and often multiple stories referred to it. In one particular case, a segment about Earth hour came after a lengthy discussion about PM Rudd’s wife’s outfit at some conference (The Nine Network, Saturday 28 March, 2009); and in another, coverage of the G20 protests started on PM Rudd losing his temper with an air hostess, and proceeded to what was supposedly “the big question” on everyone’s minds - where President Obama’s wife keeps her lipstick (as she doesn’t carry a “purse”)? (Network Ten, Friday 3 April 2009).

This serves to illustrate the claim that the media focus on people instead of policies, when reporting on politics. “Scandal politics” focuses on the personal failures and power struggles of politicians, whereas a former political reporter for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) noted that “until the mid-1980s journalists focused much more on the substance of parliamentary bills” (Warwick Beutler in Beder, 1997, p.210).

When looking beyond the regular news programs of the channels focused on in this research (not within the scope of this research due to the conscious choice to examine the news programming itself) - ABC and SBS are to be commended for their frequent coverage of climate change and related issues in documentaries and weekly programs like ‘Four Corners’ on the ABC, and ‘Insight’ on SBS. The problem with this is that many people will not go out of their way to watch these, whereas the news is aimed at the broader population, and the best opportunity to inform and motivate on an ongoing basis.

2. Lack of Context
No reports covered the ‘how’ or ‘why’ of climate change. For example, when the Wilkins ice shelf in Antarctica collapsed – phrases like “15 years early”, and “climate change fears”, were not adequate explanation or context to make sense of it all (Seven Media Group, Tuesday 7 April 2009); and in another report it was said that due to climate change, a “third [of arctic ice] will disappear by next century” - but there was no explanation of what this means to us (Network Ten, Tuesday 7 April 2009). If people are to see the relevance of climate change to their lives and actions, there needs to be a bit more effort by journalists to ‘connect the dots’ for the audience whenever they can. The effects of this lack of context can be seen in the survey, where a large number of respondents indicated that further contextual information was required.

In contrast, the coverage of the “global economic crisis” was so prevalent and in-depth as to be nauseating, and with many examples of the connection between the global crisis and its impact on individuals (e.g. job losses, superannuation funds annihilated) - in case any viewers may have assumed this crisis was far removed from them. Global cooperation, great urgency and trillions of dollars were demanded to resolve the economic crisis - and this was the recurring theme of the coverage of the G20 meetings (SBS, Saturday 28 March 2009; Seven Media Group, Sunday 29 March 2009; The Nine Network, Sunday 29 March 2009; ABC, Sunday 29 March 2009; SBS, Sunday 29 March 2009; SBS, Tuesday 31 March 2009; ABC, Wednesday 1 April 2009; SBS, Thursday 2 April 2009; Network Ten, Friday 3 April 2009; ABC, Friday 3 April 2009; SBS, Friday 3 April 2009).

In eleven segments, the coverage mentioned climate change only three times (SBS, Saturday 28 March 2009; SBS, Thursday 2 April 2009; SBS, Friday 3 April 2009) – an issue which could be considered at least as deserving of urgent action, cooperation and heavy investment. Again news values and other practices discussed previously are in evidence here – such as the preference for covering events over processes, and the immediacy of economic effects over the diffuse and reasonably delayed effects of climate change on the audience.

The lack of responsibility and control over events that is conveyed by these articles, is a symptom of the prevailing economic rationalist paradigm as well as the lack of space dedicated to discussing the broader implications of policies or their possible reform. The audience is disempowered, and everything is left in the hands of the elite, whose only response appears to be to throw mind-blowing amounts of money at it.

Furthermore, one of the reports, which noted that the demonstrations at the G20 meetings would “include some climate change protesters”, ended with a statement of the security costs incurred as a result of the protests (SBS, Saturday 28 March 2009). This simply reinforces the attitudes towards protesters as a nuisance and an unnecessary cost to taxpayers. Another example of this continual undermining of the concept of democratic protests, was the comment about the “environmental groups aiming to cause trouble” at G20 protests (ABC, Wednesday 1 April 2009).

Only once was a meaningful connection made – twelve minutes into an extended segment about the meetings and anticipated protests, an Oxfam spokesperson made the first mention of climate change, noting that “the economy could be run on a fraction of its current carbon emissions” (SBS, Friday 3 April 2009). At last, a legitimate spokesperson was selected to put the protests in context, by showing some of the views of the actual participants.

This treatment of the protests correlates strongly with the findings of a study by Todd Gitlin of media coverage of the 1960s and 1970s student movement, which was trivialised and marginalised through images conveying youthful “outlandishness, militancy and deviance”, while “neglecting the content of the movement’s statements and the causes of the students’ protests” (Beder, 1997, p.207). These images powerfully shape the public perception of social movements, as well as the movement’s perception of itself and its effectiveness (Beder, 1997, p.207).

One could argue that television news is restricted by time considerations, and climate change is a complex issue which does not lend itself to simple sound bites, or there is seldom anything tangible to show or report on. However these arguments apply equally to the economy - and economic processes and theories in general. So why not have an “environment” section, like the “finance” and even “sport” sections – in order to devote more time to the issues? Reports could then include useful graphs and other aids to help people understand. A lot of effort goes into explaining financial indicators to ordinary people using these sorts of tools, and audiences have no doubt become better educated on the basics of economic theory as a result – at least enough to make the daily decisions relevant to their own lives (like whether to buy property, or sell off their stocks).

B. Criteria of Analysis:

1. Omissions
Many times, opportunities to discuss climate change in relation to stories being covered were overlooked – glaring examples being the story about “recycling jobs” – covered by three channels (Channel 10, ABC & SBS), but only one noted that recycling resulted in two million tonnes of CO2 emissions saved (SBS, 3 April, 2009). Also in the coverage of the first completely electric car, not a single report mentioned that this would help reduce GHG emissions (The Nine Network, Wednesday 8 April 2009; Network Ten, Wednesday 8 April 2009; SBS, Wednesday 8 April 2009). Again, these educational opportunities were missed, and the results of this can be clearly seen in the survey analysis, with an observable lack of deeper understanding of the issues.

If positive stories about climate change were seldom mentioned, negative associations were even less likely to be made – extreme floods in the US, Indonesia, NSW and QLD were covered a total of twenty times in the two week period – yet not once did any of the networks refer to climate change and the predicted increase in the frequency and severity of such extreme events. Comments about the NSW floods being “worse than 1996” were not contextualised in this manner either (ABC, Tuesday 31 March 2009). During the heavy rains in Sydney, a property at Narrabeen was mentioned, only meters from the ocean, and under threat from the extremely high waters (The Nine Network, Wednesday 1 April 2009). There could hardly be a better time to point out the threat of rising sea levels in the near future - yet again it was the ‘elephant in the room’, the glaringly obvious, but unmentioned, issue.

This puzzling pattern of omission of important connections and the bigger picture, continued with the story about the “killer heat” in Victoria in January being blamed for a total of 980 deaths (The Nine Network, Monday 6 April 2009)! There were also segments noting that the drought in the Murray-Darling Basin is “unprecedented” (SBS, Tuesday 7 April 2009), and there will be a Water Summit to address this urgently – with calls for an “emergency” to be declared (SBS, Wednesday 1 April 2009). Any effective long-term solution to this “emergency” would require an understanding and assessment of the implications of climate change, but this was not mentioned.

In light of the preceding discussion, when finally someone dared to make a connection between recent tragedies and the looming threat of climate change – the Anglican Bishop at the memorial service for bushfire victims (Network Ten, Wednesday 1 April 2009; SBS, Wednesday 1 April 2009) – it was disappointing that two channels didn’t show that part of the speech (The Nine Network, Wednesday 1 April 2009; ABC, Wednesday 1 April 2009), and Channel 7 didn’t feature the story at all (Seven Media Group, Wednesday 1 April 2009). The ABC version focused on PM Rudd’s speech, which did at least refer to “sustainability” briefly (ABC, Wednesday 1 April 2009). This was an example of a missed opportunity to utilise the influence of prominent thought leaders, like a spiritual leader, to influence public opinions and motivate action – or at least to reflect the full range of existing views on climate change in the public, to the public.

2. Inaccuracies
From omissions to complete inaccuracies, most channels did not do well in communicating the climate change issue – and at times the information given unapologetically contradicted other reports. For example, in a piece about “Saving Antarctica”, it was noted that sea levels are likely to rise up to six meters by the end of the century (SBS, Tuesday 7 April 2009); whereas a previous report about the danger of sea levels rising said this would be one meter by the end of the century (SBS, Friday 27 March 2009) - both of these estimates were presented as “facts”. One could argue in defence of the news networks that this simply shows the nature of the climate change debate - with all its controversy and complexity. However, it would help if they chose more reputable sources, and included interviews with recognised experts relevant to the area under discussion.

This is illustrated in comparing the coverage of Earth Hour: in one instance a World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) spokesperson discussed the possibility of restructuring the economy to run efficiently and on a fraction of its current carbon emissions (The Nine Network, Sunday 29 March 2009); while another report chose to interview an EnergyAustralia spokesperson, who focused on telling people to switch off appliances and use energy efficient light globes (ABC, Sunday 29 March 2009). The latter deals with low-impact actions, possibly in an effort to distract from the high-impact actions that need to be taken (due to vested interests, denial and political inertia - as previously highlighted) - which the first source was referring to.

Simple alternatives include referring to the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which are widely accepted as a reliable source. This would also be utilising a Peace Journalism strategy referred to as ‘anchorage’ – a reliable reference point from which to judge competing claims (Lynch & McGoldrick, 2005, p.xvii).

3. Ethics
The analysis of television news in this section indicates an absence of critical, investigative, educational or ethical aims and approaches in presenting climate change related issues. One telling display of the focus on elite discourse to set the agenda and apparently also as the measure of morality, was the comment that the stocks “shot up” in approval of the recent G20 decisions (ABC, Friday 3 April 2009). The world vowed to pour over five trillion into better economic regulation - but what about spending even a fraction of those inconceivable amounts on environmental and social justice? Not too surprisingly, there were no interviews with environmental or social advocates to counter this prevailing paradigm of neoliberal economic thought.

One may again say that news reporting must simply convey the ‘facts’, without judgment – however, by choosing to cover only ‘official’ or ‘elite’ sources, and their worldviews, reporters are in actual fact favouring certain opinions over others (e.g. grassroots movements, local and indigenous views, minority or marginalised groups), not being ‘unbiased’, as they claim to be. This points to the need for new approaches and strategies – some of which may be drawn from peace journalism, or other reformist theories.

The final stage of this research was analysing the responses of Australians to an online survey regarding climate change – its perceived seriousness and urgency, and possible preventative actions and changes needed. This analysis aimed to uncover what readings Australians are making of the texts analysed in the previous two sections, and how this meaning-making is affecting their behaviour or actions with regard to climate change. While the survey results are not included in this article, the conclusions of these findings are discussed in the following section.

RESEARCH conclusionS

In examining public discourse about the issue of climate change - and whether this discourse enables or constrains effective public action on the issues, a survey of newspaper and television news media was cross-analysed with an online survey of public perceptions regarding the issues and required actions. The findings suggest that effective action is not currently being empowered by media portrayals of climate change related issues, despite the public’s high level of awareness of the seriousness, relevance and urgency of climate change.

Detailed questions and answers in the survey, regarding the sorts of actions required to prevent climate change, revealed a ‘gap’ between the high level actions which 48 percent felt would be most effective (i.e. government policies); and the low-impact changes to lifestyle they appeared to be implementing individually. The most popular options were personal lifestyle changes, selected by 46 percent; and careful use of purchasing power, selected by 40 percent. The survey findings further revealed that the least likely form of activity that people would engage in was political activism - only 13 percent selected this option; or advocacy of any sort - including donating to environmental NGOs (selected by only 8 %).

This research indicates that the portrayal of political activism or advocacy by the Australian news media correlates strongly with the public’s perceptions of the acceptability and viability of such actions. The review of newspaper articles and television news reflected a lack of strong role models or favourable reporting of people taking action in this manner. As noted by the survey respondents themselves, these portrayals would be very influential in enabling personal or social change. Therefore this implies that the news media’s generally negative framing of political activities such as activism, discourages the audience from participating in such action.

In addition, this essay asserts that because climate change is placed within the larger framing of ‘the environment versus the economy’ - as a ‘zero-sum’ game, this inhibits examination of the range of options in between. Coupled with the research findings that there are a lack of attractive, relevant options and alternatives being showcased in the media as ‘success stories’; a lack of context; and a narrow focus on elite perspectives and interests - this would support the conclusion that media representations of action on climate change do not enable or encourage ‘effective action’ by individuals (For the purposes of this study, ‘effective action’ was defined in their own words – the approach selected as ‘most likely to prevent climate change’ by most respondents in the survey was ‘government policies’, followed closely by ‘education/ raising awareness’).

A large number of people were also either unaware or disinterested in the many other options already available for changing their lifestyles – as reflected in their answers to the open questions at the end. A dominant theme throughout this research was the need expressed for further education on the alternatives, as well as examples of others already implementing these, or “interesting projects to get on board”. In light of the other key findings discussed, one could add to this the unspoken need to portray political options like advocacy, lobbying and activism in a more favourable light, highlighting their potential to transform public concerns into government policies.

Since the majority of Australians still rely on mass media for information regarding climate change, its impacts and possible solutions; and this research suggests that the representation of these in the media has a causal connection with the attitudes and responses of those surveyed; it follows that media reform is a significant area of endeavour for those seeking action on climate change (whether government responses and policies, or individual lifestyle changes) - including climate change organisations, advocates, activists and educators.






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Primary sources
These include: online survey results (APP.3), and media content analysis as per following pages.
Newspaper articles sourced in a one year period
(March 2008 to February 2009)
Ahmed, T., (10-11 January, 2009), ‘For those living in peril, climate change is more than an abstract idea’, p.25, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Carter, B., (Tuesday, 20 January, 2009), ‘Cold hard facts debunk global warming alarmism’, p.10, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Chandler, J., (Weekend Edition, 19-20 April, 2008), ‘We fill our tanks while they can’t fill their stomachs’, p.26, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Clennell, A., (Weekend Edition, 19-20 April, 2008), ‘Premier’s power play’, p.25, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Coleman, K., (Wednesday, 19 March, 2008), ‘Schools all pumped up to do their bit’, p.19, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Coleman, K., (Wednesday, 22 October, 2008), ‘Devoting their energies to a fun park with a difference’, p.14, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Connolly, P. & May, A., (Sunday, 29 June, 2008), ‘20 ways to save the world’, p.18-20,22, Sunday Life magazine, The Sun-Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Coorey, P. & Hartcher, P., (Monday, 15 December, 2008), ‘Billions to ease carbon burden’, p.1-2, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Coorey, P. & Hartcher, P., (Monday, 15 December 15, 2008), ‘Sun could power remote communities’, p.2, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Coorey, P., (12-13 July, 2008), ‘Chill winds for Nelson after climate change’, p.4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Coorey, P., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Don’t forget the coalminer’s daughter – Rudd digs deep for sector’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Coorey, P., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Solar protection’, p.1, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Cubby, B., (13-14 December, 2008), ‘Balancing act on the carbon tightrope’, p.22, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia:, Fairfax publishing.
Cubby, B., (19-21 December, 2008), ‘Mining giant Rio Tinto likely to reap biggest carbon windfall’, p.2, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Cubby, B., (21-23 March, 2008), ‘Polluters add fuel to carbon deal speculation’, p.4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Cubby, B., (29-30 March, 2008), ‘Amid the dark, millions keep an idea alight’, p.6, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Cubby, B., (20-21 September, 2008), ‘Rebate program blows hot and cold’, p.7, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Cubby, B., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Lever in place for bigger cuts’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Cubby, B., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Renewable energy boom set to go up in smoke’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Cubby, B., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Scientists predict a hot and bleak future’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Cubby, B., Wilkinson, M. & Wright, G., (29-30 March, 2008), ‘A movement that spans the world’, p.7, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Curtin, J. & Cubby, B., (29-30 March, 2008), ‘From solar hats to concerts by candlelight, Sydney flicks the switch’, p.7, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Curtin, J., (Wednesday, 18 March, 2008), ‘Making changes you can bank on’, p.18, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Darby, A., (17-18 January, 2009), ‘Seeing Heard is believing in global warming’, p.7, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Davis, M., (16-17 August, 2008), ‘Cheap rego for small cars’, p.1, July 12-13, (2008), ‘Chill winds for Nelson after climate change’, p.4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Davis, M., (Monday, 25 August, 2008), ‘Politics and policy on climate change don’t mix’, p.13, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Davis, M., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Lower burden for the nation’s worst polluters’, p.4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Devine, M., (14-15 February, 2009), ‘Unafraid of greenies, killjoys and pies’, p.21, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Devine, M., (26-27 July, 2008), ‘Lonely voice of dissent declared valid’, p.33, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Douglas, J., (25-27 April, 2008), ‘Climate change – no more business, politics as usual’, p.34, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Duffy, M., (12-13 July, 2008), ‘Carbon warrior Rudd has found his version of Howard’s way’, p.35, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Duffy, M., (21-23 March, 2008), ‘Always look on the bright side of global environmental disaster’, p.31, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Duffy, M., (8-9 November, 2008), ‘Truly inconvenient truths about climate change being ignored’, p.35, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Duffy, M., (3-4 May, 2008), ‘New climate figures would make a great debate – if anyone reported them’, p.37, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Farr, M., (Wednesday, 16 July, 2008), ‘Carbon copies of previous acronyms’, The Daily Telegraph, Sydney, NSW, Australia: News Limited.
Farrelly, E., (30-31 August, 2008), ‘Nature and the Altruism Gene’, p.24, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Flannery, T., (20-21 September, 2008), ‘The coal conundrum’, p.30, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Fray, P., (7-8 February, 2009), ‘Meanwhile, the planet still needs saving…’, p.10, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Garnaut, R., (19-21 December, 2008), ‘Oiling the squeaks’, p.25, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Hamilton, C., (5-6 April, 2008), ‘Low-carb diet we have to have’, p.35, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Hartcher, P., (19-21 December, 2008), ‘Carbon plan fuels meltdown’, p.1, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Hartcher, P., (19-21 December, 2008), ‘Carbon plan ruins the future’, p.1, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Hartcher, P., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Burning fears about Captain Reasonable’, p.1,4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Horin, A., (9-10 August, 2008), ‘Globetrotting boomers fly in the face of carbon reality’, p.29, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Irvine, J., (5-6 April, 2008), ‘Get used to being greener, poorer’, p.1, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Knox, M., (14-15 February, 2009), ‘My country, my tyrant’, p.8, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Lee, J., (28-29 June, 2008), ‘Light stuff holds a torch for others’, p.6, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Lewis, D., (10-11 May, 2008), ‘Another big dry forecast for irrigators’, p.10, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Lewis, D., (11-12 October, 2008), ‘Parched rice packs up for sea change’, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Marr, D., (14-15 February, 2009), ‘Stay or go? A question everyone still asks’, p.3, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
McEwan, I., (8-9 March, 2008), ‘The hot breath of civilisation’, p.36, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
McGeough, P., (14-15 February, 2009), ‘The painful truth’, p.1, 4-5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
McMahon, B., (11-17 July, 2008), ‘Australian climate change report reads like a disaster novel’, p.3, The Guardian weekly, Guardian News and Media Limited.
Molloy, F., (Wednesday, 19 March, 2008), ‘Backyard answer to energy crisis’, p.19, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Moore, M., (28-29 June, 2008), ‘The day the tide turned’, p.32, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Munro, K., (Wednesday, 22 October, 2008), ‘New jobs in a clean economy’, p.14, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Munro, K., (Wednesday, 22 October, 2008), ‘Wanted: wind farm bladerunners’, p.14, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Myers, P., (11-12 October, 2008), ‘Grain drain boils over in the outback dust bowl’, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Oakley, A., (29-30 March, 2008), ‘For the planet’s sake, it’s time to switch off’, p.36, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Oakley, A., (29-30 March, 2008), ‘From San Francisco to Sydney’, p.1, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Oakley, A., (Wednesday, 22 October, 2008), ‘Doubts cast over solar rebate’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Peariman, J. & Cubby, B., (Wednesday, 7 January, 2009), ‘Defence warns of climate change conflict’, p.1, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Peatling, S., (12-13 July, 2008), ‘Household energy use still soaring’, p.4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Peatling, S., (29-30 March, 2008), ‘How green is my pollie: powers that be to lead by example’, p.6, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Peatling, S., (31 May – 1 June, 2008), ‘Rise at bowsers good for the planet: Greens’, p.6, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Peatling, S., (20-21 September, 2008), ‘Experts offer urgent river plan’, p.7, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Peatling, S., (20-21 September, 2008), ‘Rudd comment turns up heat on Garnaut target’, p.7, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Peatling, S., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Greenpeace, WWF damn paper on climate change’, p.4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Peatling, S., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Poorer households will benefit’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Robins, B., (29-30 November, 2008), ‘Energy bills rising to help us keep our cool’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Veiszadeh, E., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘Compensation for doing their bit’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wade, M., (11-12 October, 2008), ‘Climate change ground zero’, p.29, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M. & Cubby, B., (14-15 February, 2009), ‘The end of certainty’, p.9, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M. & Cubby, B., (8-9 March, 2008), ‘Can this woman turn us off?’, p.35, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M. & Cubby, B., (10-11 May, 2008), ‘Wong’s dose of shock therapy’, p.27, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M., (13-14 December, 2008), ‘Playing the percentages’, p.21-22, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M., (17 March, 2008), ‘As the ice melts, Australia confronts the cold, hard facts’, p.1, 5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M., (4-5 October, 2008), ‘Oysters will fail the acid test’, p.3, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M., (20-21 September, 2008), ‘Melt rate suggests Arctic ice to vanish’, p.7, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M., (Tuesday, 16 December, 2008), ‘PM baulks at crossroads of history’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wintour, P. & Elliott, L., (11-17 July, 2008), ‘G8 sets goal of 50% cut in greenhouse gases’, p.1-2, The Guardian weekly, Guardian News and Media Limited.
Wintour, P., (15-16 March, 2008), ‘Blair to head global green dream team’, p.23, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Young, A., (29-30 March, 2008), ‘Pedal-powered rock in Tel Aviv’, p.7, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.


Newspaper articles sourced in a one month period
(mid March to mid April 2009)
Alexander, C., (16 April, 2009), ‘Aussies told to curb `luxurious' lifestyles’, The Mercury, p.17, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Alexander, C., (16 April, 2009), ‘China turns tables on climate’, Herald Sun, p.58, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Arup, T., (13 April, 2009), ‘Current Targets won’t protect planet: call for tougher carbon reductions’, The Age, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Arup, T., (13 April, 2009), ‘Science ignored in climate targets: Call for cuts to coal-fired pollution’, The Age, p.4, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Australian Associated Press, (15 April, 2009), ‘Chinese slam Australia's climate efforts’, AAP Finance News Wire, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Australian Associated Press, (15 April, 2009), ‘Chinese slam Australia's climate efforts’, AAP General News Wire, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from Academic Research Library database.
Australian Associated Press, (15 April, 2009), ‘Climate not China seen as emerging security challenge’, AAP General News Wire, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from Academic Research Library database.
Australian Associated Press, (15 April, 2009), ‘FTA a focus of Burke's trip to China’, AAP Finance News Wire, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Australian Associated Press, (15 April, 2009), ‘Insurers target green products to limit climate change losses’, AAP Finance News Wire, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Australian Associated Press, (15 April, 2009), ‘Insurers target green products to limit climate change losses’, AAP Finance News Wire, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Australian Associated Press, (15 April, 2009), ‘Labor should heed advice of CSIRO scientists: Greens’, AAP General News Wire, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from Academic Research Library database.
Australian Associated Press, (16 April, 2009), ‘China calls on Aust, US to lead climate crusade’, AAP General News Wire, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from Academic Research Library database.
Australian Associated Press, (14 April, 2009), ‘Greens to press Rudd on end to logging in native forests, AAP General News Wire, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from Academic Research Library database.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), (15 April, 2009), ‘Farmers give evidence to climate change inquiry’, ABC Rural News, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), (15 April, 2009), ‘Science behind Garnaut Report flawed, inquiry told’, ABC Premium News, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, (14 April, 2009), ‘Brown to push 'greening of the economy' ideas’, ABC Premium News, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, (14 April, 2009), ‘Government departments question canal plan’, ABC Premium News, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Bailey, G., (16 April, 2009), ‘Insurance costs may force us to go green’, The Mercury, p.20, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Bateman, D., (11 April, 2009), ‘Bid for giant network of sensors from Torres Strait to Bundaberg Reef monitor plan’, Townsville Bulletin, p.73, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Bateman, D., (11 April, 2009), ‘Hot temperatures favour females’, Townsville Bulletin, p.72, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Beale, B., (25-26 April, 2009), ‘A scarier, colder vision of the climate change future’, p.7, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Berkovic, N., (16 April, 2009), ‘Curb wasteful lifestyles, Chinese urge’, The Australian, p.5, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Blair, T., ‘Coal dilemma’, (16 April, 2009), The Daily Telegraph, p.26, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Blair, T., (15 April, 2009), ‘Our Martian landscape where no sceptic can survive’, The Australian, p.13, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Boyer, P., (14 April, 2009), ‘Make a quiet transition’, The Mercury, p.16, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), (1 April, 2009), ‘China urges more effort at UN climate change talks in Bonn’, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Brown, D., (15 April, 2009), ‘State's quay concern Political support sinks for bay plan’, The Mercury, p.5, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Chalmers, E., (16 April, 2009), ‘Economy replaces defence fears’, The Courier - Mail, p.16, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Collee, J., (11 April, 2009), ‘Prognosis for a planet: death’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.3, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Costello, P., (Wednesday 15 April, 2009), ‘How immoral, to hold the wrong views’, p.15, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Cox, A., (14 April, 2009), ‘Earth stabilises increase in greenhouse:OPINION & ANALYSIS’, The Herald, p.9, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Crabb, A., (17 March, 2009), ‘Power and passion pop: nine-foot baldie gets to speak’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.5, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Devine, M., (18-19 April, 2009), ‘Planet doomsayers need a cold shower’, p.9, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Dodd, M., (16 April, 2009), ‘Defence issues over the horizon’, The Australian, p.2, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fairfax Media, (16 April, 2009) ‘Ideas to combat global warming :your say’, Illawarra Mercury, p.21, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fairfax Media, (14 April, 2009), ‘Non-conformists keep debate - if not planet – alive’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.8, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fairfax Media, (15 April, 2009), ‘CSIRO climate experts defiant’, The Canberra Times, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fairfax Media, (15 April, 2009), ‘CSIRO scientists speak out’, The Canberra Times, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fairfax Media, (15 April, 2009), ‘Emissions scheme 'designed to fail'’, The Canberra Times, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fairfax Media, (15 April, 2009), ‘LOST IN SPACE:home ideas expo’, The Herald, p. 20, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fairfax Media, (15 April, 2009), ‘Population growth negates efforts to halt greenhouse harm’, The Canberra Times, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fairfax Media, (15 April, 2009), ‘Researcher looks to bright future for graduates’, The Herald, p. 7, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Farr, M., (16 April, 2009), ‘Threat to coal jobs -- Climate plan hits mines --- EXCLUSIVE’, The Daily Telegraph, p.15, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fatchen, M., (11 April, 2009), ‘Sons of the stubble look to the sky’, The Advertiser, p.72, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Fenton, A., (11 April, 2009), ‘FAITH NO MORE’, The Advertiser, p.10, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Gilmore, H., (Monday, 9 March, 2009), ‘Beautiful one day, battening down the next’, p.4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Gordon, J., (12 April, 2009), ‘Youth being brainwashed about climate: Liberal MP’, Sunday Age, p.9, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Griffiths, E., (15 April, 2009), ‘Climate change committee begins hearings’, ‘AM’, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Hagon, T., (Monday, 9 March, 2009), ‘Now a car that nags as you drive’, p.3, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Healy, S, (14 April, 2009), ‘Fiddling at the edges as climate goes into tailspin’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.9, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Hepworth, K., (10 April, 2009), ‘An unrequited love’, The Daily Telegraph, p.55, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Houghton, D., (11 April, 2009), ‘Sea-level dwellers left high 'n' dry’, The Courier - Mail, p.72, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Jenkin, C., (13 April, 2009), ‘Humans are ‘not hurting’ the climate’, The Advertiser, p.10, Adelaide, SA, Australia: News Limited.
Jopson, D., (Monday, 9 March, 2009), ‘From food bowl to dust bowl, our water lifelines run dry’, p.1,4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Jopson, D., (Monday, 9 March, 2009), ‘Great soil for growing rice: just add water’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Jopson, D., (Monday, 9 March, 2009), ‘Less rain every year, and only one cow left in the paddock’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Jopson, D., (Monday, 9 March, 2009), ‘The land runs low on livelihoods and hope’, p.5, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Keene, N., (15 April, 2009), ‘Rail the answer for jobs in Hunter’, The Daily Telegraph, p.11, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Kirk, A. & Griffiths, E., (15 April, 2009), ‘CSIRO scientist describes ETS 'Russian roulette', on ‘AM’, ABC Premium News, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Kirk, A., (15 April, 2009), ‘CSIRO steers clear of Senate inquiry on emissions’, The World Today, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Kirk, A., (15 April, 2009), ‘Scientists criticise Government targets’, ‘AM’, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Lane, S., (15 April, 2009), ‘Australians not threatened by rise of China: report’, The World Today, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Lane, S., (15 April, 2009), ‘Govt's climate change policies, 'inadequate': Scientists tell Senate inquiry’, ‘PM’, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Lee, J., (16 April, 2009), ‘If you can't beat 'em, throw big bucks at 'em’, The Age, p.8, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Lee, J., (16 April, 2009), ‘Survival lessons for corporate orangutans :THE PITCH’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.24, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Lightfoot, J., (9 April, 2009), ‘'Real-time' Reef watch’, The Cairns Post, p.50, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Margetts, J., (15 April, 2009), ‘Mass exodus: rural town struggles to survive’, ABC Premium News, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
MediaNet Press Release Wire, (14 April, 2009), ‘Media Release: Australian Environment Foundation’, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
MediaNet Press Release Wire, (14 April, 2009), ‘Put the Freeze on Global Warming!’, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
MediaNet Press Release Wire, (16 April, 2009), ‘Media Release: Greenpeace’, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Metherell, M., (9 April, 2009), ‘Food sector hungry for PM's direction’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.7, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Moore, C., (Friday, 17 April, 2009), ‘A sustainable Sydney needs bikes and trams’, p.11, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Moore, M., (Wednesday, 1 April, 2009), ‘Scrap coal plan, says Rudd’s man’, p.3, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Munro, K., (11 April, 2009), ‘Food-waste campaigner harnesses Tupperware power’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.8, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Murphy, M., (15 April, 2009), ‘Carbon trading scheme to bring 'green dollars', The Age, p.6, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Newman, S., (13 April, 2009), ‘Earth Week Diary of the planet’, The Mercury, p.15, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
News Limited, (15 April, 2009), ‘CSIRO attacks carbon targets’, The Australian, p.4, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Newsome, B., (13 April, 2009), ‘Tornado Rampage, Discovery Science’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.12, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Norman, J., (9 April, 2009), ‘First wave of 'climate refugees' on the seas’, The Age, p.10, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Poole, M., (13 April, 2009), ‘Gen Y deserves genuine hearing’, The Canberra Times, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Roberts, S., (11 April, 2009), ‘Titans of industry sinking us’, The Mercury, p.39, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Rodgers, E., (15 April, 2009), ‘No concerns over possible China military threat, panel finds’, ABC Premium News, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Saulwick, J., (Friday, 17 April, 2009), ‘Garnaut’s climate change agonising’, p.3, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Sheehan, P, (13 April, 2009), ‘Beware the climate of conformity’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.11, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Sheehan, P., (14 April, 2009), ‘Passion for global warming cools in the face of evidence’, The Australian, p.11, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Sheeran, G., (12 April, 2009), ‘Chasing affordable power bills’, Sunday Star - Times, p.3, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Spinney, L., (25-26 April, 2009), ‘Future not so bright as sun dims’, p.11, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Tanner, L., (16 April, 2009), ‘Gear change on recovery road’, The Age, p.8, retrieved 16 April,(2009), from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
The Advertiser, (16 April, 2009), ‘Risky water supply’, The Advertiser, p.16, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Totaro, P., (Wednesday, 1 April, 2009), ‘Battle lines drawn between police and an activist army’, p.13, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Tovey, J., (10 April, 2009), ‘The water is freezing, come on in - or not’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.3, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Wachsmuth, L., (11 April, 2009), ‘Live in a green house’, Illawarra Mercury, p.3, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Wilkinson, M., (15 April, 2009), ‘Eminent scientists on attack over Rudd emissions plan’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.1, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Wilkinson, M., (16 April, 2009), ‘Climate scientists living in Pollyanna world, says senator’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.4, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Wilkinson, M., (9 April, 2009), ‘Temperature rise not so great but effects still grave’, Sydney Morning Herald, p.5, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Wilkinson, M., (Monday, 9 March, 2009), ‘Big polluters lobby politicians over jobs’, p.4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M., (Monday, 9 March, 2009), ‘Greenhouse gas pollution threatens Southern Ocean food chain’, p.4, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M., (Wednesday 15 April, 2009), ‘Eminent scientists on attack over Rudd emissions plan’, p.1, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Wilkinson, M., (Wednesday, 1 April, 2009), ‘State owns biggest polluters’, p.3, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, NSW, Australia: Fairfax publishing.
Williams, R., (11 April, 2009), ‘Consolations of a job you don't like’, Weekend Australian, p.14, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.
Zukerman, W., (15 April, 2009), ‘Ecological sense in a switcheroo -- Study looks at a sheep substitute’, The Australian, p.28, retrieved 16 April, 2009, from ProQuest ANZ Newsstand database.

Television news sourced in a two week period
(Friday 27 March 2009 to Thursday 9 April 4 2009)
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), (2009), ABC News, ‘ABC’, 7pm.
Network Ten, (2009), Ten News at Five, ‘Channel 10’, 5pm.
Seven Media Group, (2009), Seven News, ‘Channel 7’, 6pm.
The Nine Network, (2009), Nine News, ‘Channel 9’, 6pm.
The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), (2009), World News Australia, ‘SBS’, 6.30pm.


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